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Materials for Civil and Construction Engineering
Materials for Civil and Construction Engineering
Author: Mamlouk, Michael S. / Zaniewski, John P.
Edition/Copyright: 3RD 11
ISBN: 0-13-611058-4
Publisher: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Type: Hardback
Used Print:  $150.25
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Summary
Table of Contents
 
  Summary

Revision of the best selling civil engineering materials book on the market right now. Appropriate for civil engineering students at the junior or senior level. In the second edition, new sample problems have been added throughout the text. Many numerical problems have been added at the end of each chapter. The authors added many figures and pictures throughout the MS, especially in the appendix. The sections on Heat Treatment of Steel, Properties of Blended Aggregates, Admixtures for Concrete, Superpave Mix Design have been changed or updated. New sections on Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate, Selef Consolidating Concrete and Flowable Fill, High-Performance Concrete have been added.

 
  Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface xiv ONE Materials Engineering Concepts 1 1.1 Economic Factors 2 1.2 Mechanical Properties 3 1.2.1 • Loading Conditions 4 1.2.2 • Stress—Strain Relations 5 1.2.3 • Elastic Behavior 5 1.2.4 • Elastoplastic Behavior 8 1.2.5 • Viscoelastic Behavior 12 1.2.6 • Temperature and Time Effects 17 1.2.7 • Work and Energy 18 1.2.8 • Failure and Safety 18 1.3 Nonmechanical Properties 21 1.3.1 • Density and Unit Weight 21 1.3.2 • Thermal Expansion 22 1.3.3 • Surface Characteristics 23 1.4 Production and Construction 24 1.5 Aesthetic Characteristics 25 1.6 Sustainable Design 26 1.7 Material Variability 27 1.7.1 • Sampling 28 1.7.2 • Normal Distribution 29 1.7.3 • Control Charts 29 1.7.4 • Experimental Error 32 1.8 Laboratory Measuring Devices 32 1.8.1 • Dial Gauge 33 1.8.2 • Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) 33 1.8.3 • Strain Gauge 37 1.8.4 • Non-Contact Deformation Measurement Technique 38 1.8.5 • Proving Ring 38 1.8.6 • Load Cell 39 Summary 40 Questions and Problems 41 1.9 References 51 TWO Nature of Materials 52 2.1 Basic Materials Concepts 52 2.1.1 • Electron Configuration 52 2.1.2 • Bonding 55 2.1.3 • Material Classification by Bond Type 58 2.2 Metallic Materials 58 2.2.1 • Lattice Structure 59 2.2.2 • Lattice Defects 63 2.2.3 • Grain Structure 64 2.2.4 • Alloys 67 2.2.5 • Phase Diagrams 67 2.2.6 • Combined Effects 73 2.3 Inorganic Solids 73 2.4 Organic Solids 75 2.4.1 • Polymer Development, Structure, and Cross-Linking 76 2.4.2 • Melting and Glass Transition Temperature 79 2.4.3 • Mechanical Properties 80 Summary 81 Questions and Problems 81 2.5 References 84 THREE Steel 85 3.1 Steel Production 87 3.2 Iron—Carbon Phase Diagram 89 3.3 Heat Treatment of Steel 93 3.3.1 • Annealing 93 3.3.2 • Normalizing 94 3.3.3 • Hardening 95 3.3.4 • Tempering 95 3.3.5 • Example of Heat Treatment 95 3.4 Steel Alloys 95 3.5 Structural Steel 97 3.5.1 • Structural Steel Grades 97 3.5.2 • Sectional Shapes 100 3.5.3 • Specialty Steels in Structural Applications 101 3.6 Cold-Formed Steel 106 3.6.1 • Cold-Formed Steel Grades 106 3.6.2 • Cold-Formed Steel Shapes 107 3.6.3 • Special Design Considerations for Cold-Formed Steel 109 3.7 Fastening Products 109 3.8 Reinforcing Steel 111 3.8.1 • Conventional Reinforcing 111 3.8.2 • Steel for Prestressed Concrete 115 3.9 Mechanical Testing of Steel 116 3.9.1 • Tension Test 116 3.9.2 • Torsion Test 119 3.9.3 • Charpy V Notch Impact Test 122 3.9.4 • Bend Test 124 3.9.5 • Hardness Test 125 3.9.6 • Ultrasonic Testing 125 3.10 Welding 126 3.11 Steel Corrosion 129 3.11.1 • Methods for Corrosion Resistance 130 Summary 131 Questions and Problems 131 3.12 References 139 FOUR Aluminum 140 4.1 Aluminum Production 143 4.2 Aluminum Metallurgy 145 4.2.1 • Alloy Designation System 147 4.2.2 • Temper Treatments 148 4.3 Aluminum Testing and Properties 151 4.4 Welding and Fastening 156 4.5 Corrosion 157 Summary 157 Questions and Problems 157 4.6 References 162 FIVE Aggregates 163 5.1 Aggregate Sources 164 5.2 Geological Classification 165 5.3 Evaluation of Aggregate Sources 165 5.4 Aggregate Uses 166 5.5 Aggregate Properties 167 5.5.1 • Particle Shape and Surface Texture 169 5.5.2 • Soundness and Durability 171 5.5.3 • Toughness, Hardness, and Abrasion Resistance 172 5.5.4 • Absorption 173 5.5.5 • Specific Gravity 175 5.5.6 • Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate 177 5.5.7 • Strength and Modulus 178 5.5.8 • Gradation 178 5.5.9 • Cleanness and Deleterious Materials 195 5.5.10 • Alkali—Aggregate Reactivity 196 5.5.11 • Affinity for Asphalt 197 5.6 Handling Aggregates 198 5.6.1 • Sampling Aggregates 199 Summary 200 Questions and Problems 200 5.7 References 209 SIX Portland Cement, Mixing Water, and Admixtures 210 6.1 Portland Cement Production 210 6.2 Chemical Composition of Portland Cement 211 6.3 Fineness of Portland Cement 213 6.4 Specific Gravity of Portland Cement 214 6.5 Hydration of Portland Cement 214 6.5.1 • Structure Development in Cement Paste 216 6.5.2 • Evaluation of Hydration Progress 216 6.6 Voids in Hydrated Cement 218 6.7 Properties of Hydrated Cement 218 6.7.1 • Setting 218 6.7.2 • Soundness 220 6.7.3 • Compressive Strength of Mortar 221 6.8 Water—Cement Ratio 221 6.9 Types of Portland Cement 222 6.9.1 • Standard Portland Cement Types 222 6.9.2 • Other Cement Types 225 6.10 Mixing Water 226 6.10.1 • Acceptable Criteria 226 6.10.2 • Disposal and Reuse of Concrete Wash Water 228 6.11 Admixtures for Concrete 228 6.11.1 • Air Entrainers 229 6.11.2 • Water Reducers 230 6.11.3 • Retarders 233 6.11.4 • Hydration-Control Admixtures 234 6.11.5 • Accelerators 234 6.11.6 • Specialty Admixtures 235 6.12 Supplementary Cementitious Materials 236 Summary 239 Questions and Problems 240 6.13 References 245 SEVEN Portland Cement Concrete 246 7.1 Proportioning of Concrete Mixes 246 7.1.1 • Basic Steps for Weight and Absolute Volume Methods 247 7.1.2 • Mixing Concrete for Small Jobs 263 7.2 Mixing, Placing, and Handling Fresh Concrete 266 7.2.1 • Ready-Mixed Concrete 266 7.2.2 • Mobile Batcher Mixed Concrete 267 7.2.3 • Depositing Concrete 267 7.2.4 • Pumped Concrete 267 7.2.5 • Vibration of Concrete 270 7.2.6 • Pitfalls and Precautions for Mixing Water 272 7.2.7 • Measuring Air Content in Fresh Concrete 272 7.2.8 • Spreading and Finishing Concrete 274 7.3 Curing Concrete 274 7.3.1 • Ponding or Immersion 280 7.3.2 • Spraying or Fogging 280 7.3.3 • Wet Coverings 280 7.3.4 • Impervious Papers or Plastic Sheets 281 7.3.5 • Membrane-Forming Compounds 282 7.3.6 • Forms Left in Place 282 7.3.7 • Steam Curing 283 7.3.8 • Insulating Blankets or Covers 283 7.3.9 • Electrical, Hot Oil, and Infrared Curing 285 7.3.10 • Curing Period 285 7.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete 285 7.4.1 • Early Volume Change 285 7.4.2 • Creep Properties 286 7.4.3 • Permeability 286 7.4.4 • Stress—Strain Relationship 287 7.5 Testing of Hardened Concrete 289 7.5.1 • Compressive Strength Test 290 7.5.2 • Split-Tension Test 292 7.5.3 • Flexure Strength Test 293 7.5.4 • Rebound Hammer Test 294 7.5.5 • Penetration Resistance Test 295 7.5.6 • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test 296 7.5.7 • Maturity Test 296 7.6 Alternatives to Conventional Concrete 297 7.6.1 • Self-Consolidating Concrete 297 7.6.2 • Flowable Fill 299 7.6.3 • Shotcrete 301 7.6.4 • Lightweight Concrete 302 7.6.5 • Heavyweight Concrete 303 7.6.6 • High-Strength Concrete 304 7.6.7 • Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete 305 7.6.8 • Polymers and Concrete 305 7.6.9 • Fiber-Reinforced Concrete 305 7.6.10 • Roller-Compacted Concrete 306 7.6.11 • High-Performance Concrete 307 Summary 308 Questions and Problems 308 7.7 References 313 EIGHT Masonry 315 8.1 Masonry Units 315 8.1.1 • Concrete Masonry Units 316 8.1.2 • Clay Bricks 321 8.2 Mortar 324 8.3 Grout 324 8.4 Plaster 325 Summary 325 Questions and Problems 325 8.5 References 328 NINE Asphalt Binders and Asphalt Mixtures 329 9.1 Types of Asphalt Products 332 9.2 Uses of Asphalt 334 9.3 Temperature Susceptibility of Asphalt 337 9.4 Chemical Properties of Asphalt 340 9.5 Superpave and Performance Grade Binders 342 9.6 Characterization of Asphalt Cement 342 9.6.1 • Performance Grade Characterization Approach 342 9.6.2 • Performance Grade Binder Characterization 343 9.6.3 • Traditional Asphalt Characterization Tests 348 9.7 Classification of Asphalt 350 9.7.1 • Asphalt Binders 350 9.7.2 • Asphalt Cutbacks 356 9.7.3 • Asphalt Emulsions 356 9.8 Asphalt Concrete 357 9.9 Asphalt Concrete Mix Design 358 9.9.1 • Specimen Preparation in the Laboratory 358 9.9.2 • Density and Voids Analysis 362 9.9.3 • Superpave Mix Design 365 9.9.4 • Superpave Refinement 374 9.9.5 • Marshall Method of Mix Design 374 9.9.6 • Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility 382 9.10 Characterization of Asphalt Concrete 383 9.10.1 • Indirect Tensile Strength 384 9.10.2 • Diametral Tensile Resilient Modulus 384 9.10.3 • Freeze and Thaw Test 386 9.10.4 • Superpave Asphalt Mixture Performance Tests 386 9.11 Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Production and Construction 390 9.11.1 • Production of Raw Materials 390 9.11.2 • Manufacturing Asphalt Concrete 390 9.11.3 • Field Operations 391 9.12 Recycling of Asphalt Concrete 394 9.12.1 • RAP Evaluation 395 9.12.2 • RAP Mix Design 395 9.12.3 • RAP Production and Construction 395 9.13 Additives 397 9.13.1 • Fillers 397 9.13.2 • Extenders 397 9.13.3 • Polymer Modified Asphalt 397 9.13.4 • Antistripping Agents 399 9.13.5 • Others 399 9.14 Warm Mix 399 Summary 401 Questions and Problems 402 9.15 References 409 TEN Wood 411 10.1 Structure of Wood 413 10.1.1 • Growth Rings 413 10.1.2 • Anisotropic Nature of Wood 415 10.2 Chemical Composition 416 10.3 Moisture Content 417 10.4 Wood Production 419 10.4.1 • Cutting Techniques 421 10.4.2 • Seasoning 422 10.5 Lumber Grades 423 10.5.1 • Hardwood Grades 424 10.5.2 • Softwood Grades 425 10.6 Defects in Lumber 426 10.7 Physical Properties 429 10.7.1 • Specific Gravity and Density 429 10.7.2 • Thermal Properties 429 10.7.3 • Electrical Properties 431 10.8 Mechanical Properties 431 10.8.1 • Modulus of Elasticity 431 10.8.2 • Strength Properties 432 10.8.3 • Load Duration 432 10.8.4 • Damping Capacity 433 10.9 Testing to Determine Mechanical Properties 433 10.9.1 • Flexure Test of Structural Members (ASTM D198) 434 10.9.2 • Flexure Test of Small, Clear Specimen (ASTM D143) 436 10.10 Design Considerations 437 10.11 Organisms that Degrade Wood 437 10.11.1 • Fungi 438 10.11.2 • Insects 438 10.11.3 • Marine Organisms 438 10.11.4 • Bacteria 438 10.12 Wood Preservation 439 10.12.1 • Petroleum-Based Solutions 439 10.12.2 • Waterborne Preservatives 439 10.12.3 • Application Techniques 440 10.12.4 • Construction Precautions 440 10.13 Engineered Wood Products 441 10.13.1 • Structural Panels/Sheets 443 10.13.2 • Structural Shapes 445 10.13.3 • Composite Structural Members 455 Summary 456 Questions and Problems 456 10.14 References 462 ELEVEN Composites 463 11.1 Microscopic Composites 465 11.1.1 • Fiber-Reinforced Composites 465 11.1.2 • Particle-Reinforced Composites 467 11.1.3 • Matrix Phase 467 11.1.4 • Fabrication 467 11.1.5 • Civil Engineering Applications 468 11.2 Macroscopic Composites 473 11.2.1 • Plain Portland Cement Concrete 473 11.2.2 • Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete 474 11.2.3 • Asphalt Concrete 474 11.2.4 • Engineered Wood 475 11.3 Properties of Composites 475 11.3.1 • Loading Parallel to Fibers 476 11.3.2 • Loading Perpendicular to Fibers 477 11.3.3 • Randomly Oriented Fiber Composites 479 11.3.4 • Particle-Reinforced Composites 479 Summary 480 Questions and Problems 480 11.4 References 482 Appendix 483 Experiments 1. Introduction to Measuring Devices 484 2. Tension Test of Steel and Aluminum 487 3. Torsion Test of Steel and Aluminum 490 4. Impact Test of Steel 493 5. Microscopic Inspection of Materials 496 6. Sieve Analysis of Aggregates 497 7. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate 501 8. Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate 503 9. Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate 505 10. Slump of Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete 508 11. Unit Weight and Yield of Freshly Mixed Concrete 511 12. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Pressure Method 513 13. Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Volumetric Method 515 14. Making and Curing Concrete Cylinders and Beams 517 15. Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens with Sulfur or Capping Compound 521 16. Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens 523 17. Flexural Strength of Concrete 526 18. Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete 529 19. Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete 531 20. Testing of Concrete Masonry Units 534 21. Viscosity of Asphalt Binder by Rotational Viscometer 537 22. Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test of Asphalt Binder 539 23. Penetration Test of Asphalt Cement 541 24. Absolute Viscosity Test of Asphalt 543 25. Preparing and Determining the Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) Specimens by Means of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor 545 26. Preparation of Asphalt Concrete Specimens Using the Marshall Compactor 548 27. Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures 551 28. Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Concrete 553 29. Bending (Flexure) Test of Wood 555 30. Tensile Properties of Plastics 561 Index 576
 

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